U OGLEDU ZNANSTVENIH PROSUDBI
Ogledi i rasprave
Br. str: 382
Maloprodajna cijena 210,00 kn (28,00 €)
U OGLEDALU ZNANSTVENIH PROSUDBI
Hrvojka Mihanović – Salopek
Summary / Sažetak
(In the Mirror of Scientific Insights)
The first essay in the book illustrates the work of the Croatian writer and scientist Zdenka Marković (1884-1974), who in her work has united the secessionist-impre- ssionist modernism with a sense of social analyticity. She distinguished herself as an educator and scientific scholar, who was also an organizer of the literary circle – as a modernist exclusive city space, reserved for the oasis of male and female artists who were gathering, discussing and dedicating their priorities to artistic expression. The Archive of the Institute for the History of Croatian Literature, Theater and Music, of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (HAZU) in Zagreb, holds her significant manuscript collection, mostly unknown, related to the literary work of Zdenka Marković, who is presented in this study which adds new knowledge about her literary activities. Within her collection we find extensive correspondence with prominent writers, but also with the then generation of increasingly numerous modernist women writers where Marković’s commitment to their education is visible as well as her public actions in achieving the status of scientific equality of women in society. This study gives an overview of her correspondence related to the area of Polish, Bulgarian and Croatian studies. The second part of the study analyzes the literary-artistic opus of Zdenka Marković, reflecting the secessionist stylization, the characteristics of impressionistic description and the sensible sensory expression. Two psyches were sleeping in Zdenka Marković: One public, external and engaging and the other inner, secret, poetic, lyrical and introverted. These two contrasts of outer and inner life left a mark in the literary expression of Zdenka Marković, which oscillated from the lyrical but sharp and realistic description to the impressionist reflection of the nature in the inner subjective experience. Zdenka Marković was educated in Croatian, Polish, Bulgarian, Russian and in general, a wide Slavic literary tradition. During her studies, Zdenka Marković was also introduced to the German and Swiss cultural milieu, and she represents a prominent figure of the modern educated and European-oriented Croatian civil intellectual in the first half of the 20th century.
The essay Dora Pejačević dama secesijskog rafinirmana (Dora Pejačević, the Lady of the Secession Refinement) illuminates the character of prominent Croatian composer Dora Pejačević (1885-1923), considering her Bulgarian noble origin, the burdensome destiny of the Pejačević family, who was forced to leave the then oppressed Bulgaria under the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century and the composer’s own contribution within the history of Croatian music and the then European music movements. This is the first study that analyzes the handwritten literary diary of Dora Pejačević (written from 1902 to 1921), stored in Zagreb, which shows that after music, literature was the author’s greatest preoccupation and inspiration. Her literary diary is a factual reflection of the reception of some European writers and philosophers, as well as the reflection of literary styles and innovations that have entered the nobility and civil circles of the then Croatian society. The analysis of the author’s literary diary shows the socio-political circumstances that had isolated Dora Pejačević from the observation of Croatian literature and the socio-political situation at that time.
The essay Budna struna između svijeta i zavičaja (Waking String between the World and Homeland) analyzes the poetic creativity of Drago Ivanišević (1907-1981) at different periodic stages. His long study stays abroad and translations from Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese etc., left a reflection on Ivanišević’s avant-garde poetic course, which is related to the lines of Italian hermetism, French surrealism, expressionism, lettrism and other avant-garde movements, and at a later stage of existentialism. In this part of the poet’s creative work, we find his peculiar openness to various language-expressive experiments. The events of World War II and the post-war communist repression left a mark in Ivanišević’s cynicism, defiance, despair and observation of the dark sides of man. Howe- ver, in Ivanišević’s poetry, there is a constant persistent search for elemental vitality and the positive energy, which the poet drew from his native roots. The author’s native dialectal chakavian collection of poetry is also considered, reflecting the primal emotions, spontaneity, and the stylistic influence of Italian neo-realistic film. The second part of the study introduces unknown facts from the correspondence of Drago Ivanišević and Giuseppe Ungaretti, and their friendship has resulted in inspirational translations and a graphic map.
The essay Zlatko Tomičić-pjesnička kob traganja za Edenom (Zlatko Tomičić-Poetic Quest for Eden) presents the life, poetic work and the hard prison destiny of Zlatko Tomičić (1930-2008), who was unfairly sentenced in the former Yugoslavia for the so-called ‘nationalism.’ Because of the political persecution, many Tomičić’s collections of poetry were published abroad, neglected and beyond the perception of critical reviewers. This study is an overview of the complete Tomičić’s poetic work and its motif and stylistic determinants. The key aspiration towards the explication of supernatural and mystical, phenomenological approach to ontological and eschatological topics, the neomodern symbolic approach to historical themes, the archetypal perspective of sensory-organic motifs is discussed. The author’s aspiration towards polysemantic multiple meanings as well as the construction of linguistic abundance are also noticed, depicting Tomičić’s approach to word formation as a sign of concealed spiritual enlightenment.
The essay Miroslav S. Mađer (1929.-2015.) – Pjesnik panonske rapsodije riječi, (Miroslav S. Mađer (1929 – 2015) – Poet of the Pannonian Rhapsody of the Words) depicts the characteristics of the author’s poetry opus in 24 collections of poems ranging from 1955 to 2015. The stylistic features of the Mađer’s structure of the poems are noted: From the original poems of the primordial vitalism of the Pannonian Plain, pictorial intuitionism, through the influence of expressionism and rare rhetorical swirling, to associative constructivism (in the collection of Antennae of Words) and to ontologically oriented references and lyrical philosophy. Mađer’s free verse and musical linguistic rhapsody are compared to the influences of Walt Whitman and Emil Verhaeren. His poetry is considered within the context of the generation of authors (Josip Pupačić, Antun Šoljan, Ivan Slamnig, Slavko Mihalić and others), identified with the literary journal Krugovi (Circles), but also with the circle of Croatian poets (Vladimir Kovačić, Dionizije Švagelj, Dragutin Tadijanović, Dobriša Cesarić, Mirko Hunjadi and others), related to the legacy of local Pannonian roots and vitality and who in their creative work abandoned the then imposed limitations of the socialist realism.
The essay Priroda kao nadahnuće hrvatskih književnika za djecu i mlade (Nature as an Inspiration for Croatian Writers for Children and Young People) is an overview of the most important authors whose works are dominated by an artistic representation of natural features and beauty intended for children’s perception. Shown first is an overview of the beginning of creativity for children in the 19th century, which became a separate area within Croatian literature. Then the authors are presented according to a formative approach to nature description. The three most notable genre approaches are highlighted: Fairy tales (Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, Vladimir Nazor, Visnja Stahuljak-Chytil, Sunčana Škrinjarić, Tin Kolumbić), realistic, natural-educational (Nikola Pulić, Željka Horvat Vukelja, Pavao Pavličić, Katja Matković Mikulčić) and authors who encompass or vary between unrealistic and realistic approaches (Želimir Hercigonja, Anto Gardaš, Nada Mi- hoković-Kumrić, Joža Horvat and others). Contemporary tendencies of introducing ecology into literary works are also discussed.
The paper The Character of the Mother of God in the literary work of Marija Bettera Dimitrović studies the manuscript entitled Seven poems in honour of the celebration of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Pjesni sedam varhu poglavitijeh svetkovina Bl. Djevice Marije) written in the 18th century by a respectable Ragusan lady Marija Dimitrović-Bettera, inspired by a very similar work by Girolamo Tornielli, a Jesuitic preacher. This marian work is connected to the thematic cycle of pastoral works due to the inclusion of elements of idyllic pastoral poems into the theme dedicated to the Mother of God. The paper also presents an historical survey of Croatian pastoral, with a special analysis of the flourishing period of the pastoral in the 18th century when, apart from Marija Dimitrović, three more Ragusan women writers were creating their spiritual, pastoral works. These were: Anica Bošković, Benedikta Gradić and Lukrecija Bogašinović. The paper deals with the new, enlightening woman’s status, with the emergence of women’s literary work and the tradition of spirituality in Dubrovnik of that time. Marija Dimitro- vić’s inspired poems about Our Lady’s holidays are filled with different stylistic techniques, varying from allegorical meaning and symbolical visualization to didacticism, from the comparison of biblical and patristic titles to the late-baroque metaphoric exuberance, from the descriptions of childlike exaltation and emotional warmth of the women’s writing to the reflection of literary training and the influences of popular pastoral manner. The comparisons and symbolical syntagms which Marija Dimitrović attaches to the character of the Mother of God come from the provenance of biblical, preaching and hymn tradition, but metaphorical analogies with the world of nature and notions of idyllic Arcadian scenery also occur frequently as a stylistic device. In the work by Marija Dimitrović, as well as in certain spiritual works of Ragusan literature, the Mother of God appears as a metaphor of a pearl-shell, representing the highest role model for young girls to follow. In addition, the following characteristics of the Mother of God are singled out in the text: “The Mother of God is the highest ornament of human nature, victress who defeats the forces of hell, the dawn which precedes the sun (the symbol of Jesus), a clear rainbow – as a precursor of God’s brightness.” The symbols denoting the relationship between the Mother of God and humanity are also pointed out: “a clear water cooling the face of a traveller (mediating and comforting role); Mary becomes “parčica (lady-patron)” (protectress and advocate of people) and “the sea queen”, in accordance with the idea of the hymn Ave maris stella, she is a signpost, helper and mainstay of people. All four Ragusan women writers, amongst whom it was Marija Dimitrović who most prominently expressed the mariological orientation of her poetry, argued strongly in their works in favour of the everlasting value of Chri- stian spiritual beauty.
Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski (1816-1889) with his historical research and literary works has been repeatedly connected to the area of present-day Diocese of Sisak. Within the dramatic knight tournament play Juran and Sofia or The Turks at Sisak, Kukuljević brought close to the audience in theatrical form the events of the famous victory of the Croatian army under the command of Ban (Viceroy) Bakač Erdody against Turkish invaders. His book Zrin grad i njegovi gospodari /The City of Zrin and its Masters/, (Zagreb, 1883) is of great historical importance as well as his patriotic and historical poems, including the poem about Zrin. Important poems in the area of Marian devotion are Pjesme Ivana Kukuljevića Sakcinskoga s dodatkom narodnih pjesamah puka harvatskoga /Poems of Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski with an Appendix of Croatian Folk Songs/, Zagreb, 1847; especially, the second part of the collection which includes pious and pilgrim national folk songs. In this part of the collection, Kukuljević presents himself as a collector, recorder and editor of the publication of oral folk treasure and in accordance with the romantic guidelines of the time, this part of his comprehensive scientific and artistic work offers us his contribution to the beginning of systematic ethnological research. His role models were a Chech reformer and advocate of the folk art, Jan Kollar and collector of folk songs František Sušil. In those early records of folk poetry and folk songs, Kukuljević with Šime Ljubić, Fran Kurelec, Franjo Kuhač gave an important contribution to the preservation of Croatian oral folk heritage and his folk songs have a special value because he wrote them down and published them in the original dialectical form. Within kajkavian dialect folk songs, we find very interesting pious Marian folk songs with a mix of Christianity and remnants of pagan customs and reflection of people’s deep experience of Our Lady’s figure. However, the most significant contribution to the study of Marian devotion Kukuljević gave in a privately published book Szenja Blasene Divice Marie, (The Dream of Bl. Virgin Mary) Zagreb 1849, whose earlier record dates back to the 16th century. It may be assumed that the motive of immersion in the Passion of Christ and Mary’ pain emerged as a possible record of an unidentified monk and it was reflection of a mystical piety that comes from the appearance of Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153) and then reaches a peak in the mystical Passion of St. Francis of Assisi (1181-1226). The theme of parting of the Mother of God and Christ in the Passion has been present in the European spiritual literary tradition for centuries and one of the oldest sources is the work Meditatione de Vita Christi from 1280 by the Italian Franciscan priest Giovanni de Caulibus. However, the text in Kukuljević’s work (1849) presents apocryphal prayer based on the consideration of Mary’s prophetic dreams and visions of the Passion of Christ. The apocrypha was spread over a wide area of Southern, Central, Western and Eastern Europe. Kukulje- vić’s edition of Marian Passion apocrypha compares with apocryphal texts from German and Croatian Burgenland (Gradišće) literary areas with which it has substantial similarities.
The essay Duhovno pjesništvo Velimira Deželića sta- rijeg (Spiritual Poetry of Velimir Deželić Elder) addresses the unjustly forgotten author of the Croatian Catholic Movement – Velimir Deželić (1864-1941). Deželić’s spiritual poetry is considered in the period of the division of the concept of the role of literature between the so-called, the Old Ones, i.e., the supporters of literature as bearers of patriotic and idealistic-ethical roles, and the so-called, the Young Ones, supporters of modernist lines who advocated the full primacy of aesthetic literary functions and the complete freedom of language expression. Deželić’s poetry characterized by neoclassicism and late romanticism is critically analyzed; many virtues are noticed, but also the disadvantages of this approach, which is dominated by an idealistic view and delusional declarations.
Antun Barac’s texts on Fran Mažuranić. Based on the then situation in Croatian literary science which at the that time was founded upon philology, positivism and aesthetic debates, by combining several methodological approaches, Antun Barac (1894.-1955.) has made a considerable breakthrough with sociological analysis of literature. His study of the social importance of a literary work did not include only a survey of a literary coverage of social classes and significance of a work of literature in national life, but it was also manifested in unavoidable observation of aesthetic and formative determination of a work, as well as its study in a philosophical and ontological sense, that is assessing the universal quality of the literary work’s idea in humanistic and ethical terms. Such were the literary-critical viewpoints from which Barac approached his assessment od Fran Mažuranić, who became the topic of interest in his several papers. Looking at all these papers as a whole, it can be concluded that Barac gave an affirmative, commendable analysis of Mažuranić’s work, but also (based on the correspondence with fran Mažuranić) witnessed the loss of Mažuranić’s manuscripts in Croatian and especially German language. That bitter realization was reason why Barac started to view Mažuranić’s work more an more like an unobservable torso.
The essay Barokno duhovno kazalište Korčule u kritičkoj vizuri Miljenka Foretića i Nikole Batušića (Baroque Spiritual Theater of Korčula in the Critical Vision of Miljenko Foretić and Nikola Batušić) raises and valorizes the contributions of Miljenko Foretić (1939-2003) and Nikola Batušić (1938-2010) in the area of research of the spiritual drama on the island of Korčula, and especially of the most significant Baroque Korčula dramatic and poetic represen- tative, Petar Kanavelić (1637-1719). Miljenko Foretić elaborates in detail Kanavelić’s dramatic work as part of the context of the native local cultural past, with a thorough research of the data from the parish and monastic archive in Korčula, and establishes and extends Kanavelić’s aut- horship to until then anonymous comedies Andro Stitike- ca, Šimun Dundurilo, Sužanjstvo srećno.
Nikola Batušić observes Kanavelić’s spiritual drama- tic work in comparison with the Dubrovnik and European achievements, among which he first cites the characteristics of fantastic Baroque, and a whole series of innovative Baroque stage performances, emphasizing the author’s departure from tradition and developmental horizon of valorization of certain periods of Croatian dramatic literature.
In the entire book by Hrvojka Mihanović-Salopek, U ogledalu znanstvenih prosudbi (In the Mirror of Scientific Insights), selected writers are viewed in the light of new scientific facts, attention is also paid to the insufficiently studied authors or texts from the extensive area of the Croatian spiritual literature, while in the third chapter there are evaluative judgments related to the individual achievements of the Croatian literary historians and critics.
Translated by Ivan Miletić
Biografija HRVOJKE MIHANOVIĆ – SALOPEK
Hrvojka Mihanović – Salopek diplomirala je 1984. hrvatsku književnost i jezik na Filozofskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Na Filozofskom fakultetu je magistrirala 1990. s temom Hrvatska himnodija od srednjeg vijeka do preporoda, a godine 1998. je doktorirala s temom Hrvatska crkvena himnodija 19. st. Od godine 1986. radi u Odsjeku za književnost, Zavoda za povijest hrvatske književnosti, kazališta i glazbe HAZU, a od 2013. u zvanju je znanstvene savjetnice. Predavala je honorarno na Hrvatskim studijima Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 2008. te 2017. na doktorskom studiju., a u akademskoj godini 2009./10. honorarno je predavala kolegij Himnologija na Katoličkom bogoslovnom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Godine 1997. izabrana je za počasnu, dopisnu članicu međunarodne Mariološke akademije u Rimu (Pontificia Academia Mariana Internationalis).
Sudjelovala je na više znanstvenih projekata; (od 1986. do 1989. na znanstvenom projektu) Sabrana djela Ante Kovačića; (od 1991. do 2001. na znanstvenom projektu) Sabrana djela Milana Begovića u 24 sveska, a sada je suradnica na znanstvenom projektu HAZU Hrvatski književni povjesničari.
Od 2007. voditeljica je međunarodnog bilateralnog projekta Doprinos hrvatskih i bugarskih intelektualaca duhovnoj raznovrsnosti Europe, između HAZU i Bugarske akademije nauka (BAN). Voditeljica je znanstvenih skupova u okviru manifestacije Dvigrad – međunarodni festival rane glazbe u Istri pod pokroviteljstvom Predsjednika RH. Služi se engleskim jezikom.
Napisala je 8 znanstvenih knjiga:
- Hrvatska himnodija (od srednjeg vijeka do preporoda), (167 str.) Književni krug, Split, 1992.;
- Hrvatska crkvena himnodija 19. stoljeća, Biblioteka “Scientiae et Artes”, “ALFA”, Zagreb, 2000. (339 str.);
- Tihi pregaoci visovačko-skradinskog područja (Do- prinos franjevaca hrvatskoj himnodiji i duhovnoj književnosti), izdanje Franjevačke provincije Presvetoga Otkupitelja, Biblioteka “Ravnokotarski Cvit”, knj. br.15, Split, (96 str.);
- Iz duhovnog perivoja, Biblioteka “Posebna izdanja”, “Ljevak” – Zagreb, 2006. (293 str.);
- Doprinos Petra Kanavelića hrvatskoj pasionskoj baštini, (u suautorstvu s dr. Vinicijem Lupisom) Ogranak Matice hrvatske Split, Split, 2009., (303 str.);
- Željezni duh. Doprinos Jakete Palmotića Dionorića hrvatskoj književnoj baštini, (u suautorstvu s dr. Vinicijem Lupisom), Institut «Ivo Pilar» u Dubrovniku, Zagreb – Dubrovnik, 2010.,
- U ogledalu kritike, “Udruga Prosoli”, Zagreb, 2012./13.
- Fra Petar Knežević – Gospin pjesnik i književnik, Ogranak Matice hrvatske u Sinju, Sinj, 2017.
Priredila je 33 knjige izabranih djela, antologijskih izbora književnosti, monografija i zbornika radova. Objavila je preko 100 znanstvenih radova u inozemnim i domaćim časopisima i zbornicima i preko 280 stručnih radova. Uvrštena je u leksikon Who is who in Croatia, 1993. str. 480 i u Književnu enciklopediju Leksikografskog zavoda, sv. III, str. 79.
Bila je višegodišnji honorarni suradnik Znanstveno-obrazovnog programa HRTV na kojem je kao scenaristica realizirala više emisija i književnih portreta.
Od 2005. je scenaristica, redateljica i voditeljica projekta “Digitalno snimanje hrvatske mariološke baštine” pod pokroviteljstvom Odbora za obrazovanje, znanost i kulturu Hrvatskog sabora i Vijeća za kulturu Hrvatske biskupske konferencije, te je u produkciji “Udruge Prosoli Sveta glazba d.o.o.” dosad ostvarila 10 filmova na temu multidisciplinarnog prikaza marijanske baštine u pojedinim hrvatskim biskupijama i županijama.
Priredila je kao vanjski suradnik više stručnih jedinica za Hrvatski biografski leksikon, za Opću enciklopediju i Književnu enciklopediju Leksikografskog zavoda “Miroslav Krleža”, te za Leksikon hrvatskih pisaca -”Školske knjige”2000.
Od 1988. do 1998. bila je član uredničko-redakcijskog odbora časopisa Umjetnost i dijete, a od 2003. do danas djeluje kao urednica i suradnica stručnog časopisa „Musica sacra“ u Zagrebu. Od 2011. članica je Savjeta «Školskog vjesnika», pedagoškog časopisa Filozofskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Splitu. Od 1995. do danas redovni je član Nacionalnog odbora za dječju knjigu RH. Od članica je Društva hrvatskih intelektualki (koje je punopravni član međunarodne organizacije International Federation of University Women sa sjedištem u Genevi). Od 2006. počasna je članica Matice slovačke u Zagrebu. Redovna je članica Hrvatskog mariološkog instituta pri KBF-u Sveuč. u Zagrebu. Od 2007. sudjeluje kao promotor i suorganizator u radu književnih i kulturnih tribina Hrvatske paneuropske unije u Zagrebu.
Usporedo s književnošću završila je 1984. studij orgulja na Institutu za crkvenu glazbu pri Katoličkom bogoslovnom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Član je Hrvatskog udruženja glazbenih umjetnika od 1986. godine. Istakla se nizom zapaženih koncerata u domovini kao i u inozemstvu (Austrija, Francuska, Mađarska, Njemačka, Španjolska, Poljska, Češka, Argentina i SAD). Ostvarila je četiri CD-snimke u izdanju kuće HRT-”Orfej” i „Sveta glazba“d.o.o.
Dobitnica je nagrade «Petar Kanavelić» za 2016. go- dinu (Društva književnika Rijeka i Gradskog poglavarstva Korčule) te srebrne nagrade Matice hrvatske Zagreb, za književnost.